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sociology

sociology

Humanism

Humanism is the ideological and philosophical movement that arose in Europe during the Renaissance and became ideology of that period. In the center of humanity there is a man, the demand of humanistic ideas is related to the internal needs of the European society (Celenza, 2006).

The destruction of medieval corporate structures of the society, as a result of changes in the economy and social life, led to the release in production, politics and culture of the personalities of new type, which operated independently and were not based on the usual communication and moral norms (Celenza, 2006). Hence, there is the interest to the person as an individual, his place in society and in the divine universe. Ideas and teachings of humanism were developed by people coming out of different social circles (town, church, feudal) and representing different professions (school teachers and university professors, secretaries of the papal curia, royal chancellors and chancellor’s city republics, etc).

Through its existence, humanism destroyed the medieval corporate principle of social organization, as well as it was a new spiritual unity - the humanistic intellectuals united by common goals and objectives. Humanists proclaimed the idea of self-affirmation and developed the concepts and doctrines, which were the role of high moral perfection, creative and transformative power of knowledge and culture.

The XVI century was the time of the ordeal for the humanism. Italian wars, the threat of Turkish invasion, the movement of trade routes to the West due to the fall of Byzantium and the decline of trade and economic activity in Italy influenced the moral and psychological climate in the country, it lowered its vitality. The deceit, treachery, hypocrisy, greed, rampant in society did not allow to compose the old hymns to the man, living gusts of which proved to be lowland than it was previously imagined.

At the same time, the new humanistic ideas discovered the discrepancy of the reality to the humanistic ideals with their utopianism and literacy. The faith in the human nature was under the question; the sober understanding of the essence of man and a departure from the abstract lofty ideas, accompanied by an appeal to experience life appeared with the humanism.

There was a need to consider the existing order of things, based on a new understanding of the human nature (real, not imaginary), emerging and changing under the influence of the practical life. Thus, using the new method of political doctrine of Machiavelli had been built up.

Man, according to the humanists of the Renaissance, is a strong, courageous, physically and spiritually developed, beautiful and proud, genuine host and organizer of the fate of a better world. The Prince of Machiavelli is not an embodiment of humanistic virtues, he acts, showing or not showing, as appropriate, the good quality, because his actions are to be successful (and not virtuous). Machiavelli noted the strong rulers are the guarantee of the ordering of social life for the common good.

Machiavelli is often considered to be a destroyer of the humanistic attitude of the XV century. This is partly true, but in the most common, deep, ‘typological’ respects, his way of thinking still remained within the Renaissance humanist tradition (Guarini, 1999).

Based on the ethical doctrine, Machiavelli builds his concept of the state organization, which, according to his plan, should counteract the human selfishness, exercising the state violence. Machiavelli became an active opponent of the contemplation that was characteristic for the Middle Ages, and so became another representative of the Renaissance humanist activity. According to the humanism of Machiavelli, in theory of the state was no place for the church and religion. Although he recognized the necessity of religion for the masses, but opposed the Catholic religion, which, in his opinion, has outlived its usefulness (Guarini, 1999).

The Machiavelli’s humanistic individualism transformed not to the etatism, but to the passionate and fundamentally humanistic patriotism that stands out sharply against the author of ‘The Prince” on the background of the Cinquecento’s literature. Not the absolutist state, but the homeland-nation for Machiavelli became the ultimate test of social and individual morality (Machiavelli).

Despite the utter disregard for the different personal ideals, a person in ‘The Prince’ still continues to be at the forefront, and because of this, we are still dealing with the Renaissance and humanism. Hence, the kind of aesthetics appeared in such circumstances, being in its straightness and consistency the only in the history of the aesthetic thought. The society and history, which arise as an ordered set of impersonal is a real humanism, because it is only a question of making the proper human society.

The church's role in the history of Italy and in the history of Europe by Machiavelli was considered to be a negative phenomenon. As the main misfortune of his homeland, ‘The Prince’ named the fact that the church did not have the sufficient power to unite the country, but was strong enough to prevent its union not under its headship. In ‘The Prince’, Machiavelli cited numerous examples of misguided policies of the Popes, and their errors Machiavelli explained by the fact that the Vatican has always put their own interests above the national interests of Italy (Machiavelli).

However, the main reason for rejection of the Roman Catholic Church by Machiavelli was the discrepancy of its policy for many centuries to the idea of the unification of Italy. As a true patriot of his country, Machiavelli could not rebel against existing at the time the status quo: the fragmentation of the country into small semi-feudal principalities, constantly warring with each other and not willing to unite even to repel the numerous external enemies, the ruin of the country by foreign armies, and many other ills.

If this appeal to you, check out Racism in Education and Musical influence on education.


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